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Trans-parency in the workplace: How the experiences of transsexual employees can be improved - DOI:

Charlie L. Law, Larry R. Martinez, Enrica N. Ruggs, Michelle R. Hebl, Emily Akers, Trans-parency in the workplace: How the experiences of transsexual employees can be improved, Journal of Vocational Behavior, Volume 79, Issue 3, December 2011, Pages 710-723, ISSN 0001-8791, 10.1016/j.jvb.2011.03.018.

Abstract: Very little research has focused exclusively on the workplace experiences of transsexual employees. Studies that have been done are either qualitative case studies (e.g., Budge, Tebbe, & Howard; 2010; Schilt & Connell, 2007), or aggregate transsexual individuals with lesbian, gay, and bisexual employees (e.g., Irwin, 2002). The current study focuses on this underexamined population and examines general workplace experiences, and both individual and organizational characteristics that influence transsexual employees' job attitudes. Results reveal that organizational supportiveness, transsexual identity centrality, and the degree to which they disclose to individuals outside of work all predict transsexual employees' disclosure behaviors in the workplace. These disclosure behaviors are positively related to job satisfaction and organizational commitment, and negatively related to job anxiety. These relations are mediated by coworker reactions. This research expands knowledge about diverse employee populations and offers both theory and some of the first large-scale empirical data collected on the workplace experiences of transsexual employees.

Keywords: Transsexual; Transgender; Disclosure; Job attitudes; Stigma; Social support

Alternate article on eurekalert:


Categories: Research

Received 22 June 1994, in revised form 29 November 1994
Abstract. Japanese male and female undergraduate students judged the gender of a variety of facial images. These images were combinations of the following facial parts: eyebrows, eyes, nose, mouth, and the face outline (cheek and chin). These parts were extracted from averaged facial images of Japanese males and females aged 18 and 19 years by means of the Facial Image Processing System. The results suggested that, in identifying gender, subjects performed identification on the basis of the eyebrows and the face outline, and both males and females were more likely to identify the faces as those of their own gender. The results are discussed in relation to previous studies, with particular attention paid to the matter of race differences.

  • Endoscopic laryngeal web formation for pitch elevation. - Anderson, J.
    Abstract: Endoscopic laryngeal web formation has been used to elevate the speaking voice, primarily in male to female transsexuals as part of gender reassignment intervention. The goal of this article is to review the literature regarding surgical treatment for pitch elevation and to describe a novel method of laryngeal web formation. The results of this technique are also reported in a series of six patients. All patients were assessed and treated at the St. Michael's Hospital Voice Disorders Clinic, a tertiary referral centre for voice disorders. Pre- and postoperative voice recordings, acoustic analysis, and videostroboscopic examinations were performed in this series. The acoustic data collected included isolated vowel samples, a reading task, and a modified voice range profile. The patients all underwent successful endoscopic web formation with a Gelfoam augmentation technique. The voice results collected at least 6 months after vocal fold web formation demonstrate a dramatic increase in the habitual speaking fundamental frequency. This new modification for endoscopic web formation has been shown to be a successful procedure for permanent elevation of pitch with little or no morbidity.
    Keywords: Transsexuality, Male-to-Female, Voice Surgery
    PubMedID?: 17376344
    Categories: Surgery

Abstract: The fear of experiencing discrimination often provokes symptoms of psychological distress. One coping resource is positive identification with one’s social group—known as collective self-esteem. This preliminary study investigated whether collective self-esteem was related to fears regarding a transsexual identity and psychological distress among 53 self-identified male-to-female transsexuals (mean age = 50.79). Participants were recruited from transgender events held in Arizona and California. The majority (81%) reported living full-time as women (mean length of time living as a woman = 6.33 years). Negative feelings about the transsexual community and fears regarding the impact of a transsexual identity were positively related to psychological distress. A regression model revealed that the fear of how a transsexual identity would affect one’s life was the best predictor of the severity of psychological distress. These results are consistent with findings from other historically marginalized groups whereby the stress of being stigmatized by society adversely affects mental health.
Keywords: Transgender, Gender Identity Disorder, Brief Symptom Inventory, Minority stress, Gender dysphoria
Wiki Category: Therapy

ABSTRACT: Introduction. Sex reassignment surgery is an important step for transsexuals, since it is known to help the patients to live more easily in their gender role and to significantly increase quality of life. Aims. To critically evaluate our experience with the combined procedure of hysterectomy, bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy, and bilateral mastectomy for female-to-male (FtM) transsexual patients. Methods. Thirty-two FtM transsexuals who underwent hysterectomy, bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy, and bilateral mastectomy in one single operative setting. Main Outcome Measures. Operating time and complications, both intra-and postoperatively. Results. Patients were 30.0 +/- 5.8 years of age, with a body mass index of 24.8 +/- 3.5 kg/m(2). The majority of patients underwent hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy by laparoscopy (31/32, 96.9%). The median operating time was 222.5 minutes (inter-quartile range [IQR] 190-270 minutes). The median postoperative stay was eight days (IQR, 7-9 days). Postoperative adverse events were found in five patients (15.6%), including breast hematomas as the most frequent complication (4/32, 12.5%). In one patient (1/32; 3.1%), conversion from laparoscopy to laparotomy was necessary, which was considered an adverse event. None of our patients required reoperation or readmission to the hospital. Conclusion. Combined hysterectomy/salpingo-oophorectomy, and bilateral mastectomy in a single operating session seems a safe, feasible, and valuable procedure for FtM? transsexuals
Wiki Category: Surgery

Abstract: OBJECTIVE: To report a case of a microprolactinoma in a male-to-female transsexual treated with estrogens and cyproterone acetate. DESIGN: Case report. SETTING: Endocrinology unit in a university hospital. PATIENT(S): A 33-year-old male-to-female transsexual with prolactin level of 10 ng/mL. INTERVENTION(S): Treatment with equine-conjugated estrogens (2.5 mg/day, orally) and cyproterone acetate (100 mg/day, orally) during 6 months. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S): Her levels of prolactin were repeatedly found to be elevated to a maximum of 133 ng/mL, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed a pituitary mass of 5 x 4 x 4 mm. RESULT(S): Discontinuation of the cross-sex hormone treatment did not reduce the levels of prolactin. The use of dopaminergic-agonist therapy normalized them and reduced the size of the microadenoma. After sex-reassignment surgery, she was treated with low-dose estradiol transdermal patches and presented normal levels of prolactin and appropriate levels of 17beta-estradiol and testosterone with a stable image in MRI. CONCLUSION(S): We report a case of prolactinoma after treatment with equine-conjugated estrogens and cyproterone acetate. We recommend long-term follow-up observation consisting of a periodic evaluation of prolactin levels and any symptoms suggestive of hyperprolactinemia to detect as early as possible complications derived from cross-sex hormone therapy. Copyright © 2010 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Wiki Category: Hormones

Authors: Rametti G, Carrillo B, Gómez-Gil E, Junque C, Segovia S, Gomez A, Guillamon A.
Clinical Institute of Neuroscience, Hospital Clinic i Provincial, Barcelona, Spain; Institute of Biomedical Research August Pi i Sunyer (IDIBAPS), Barcelona, Spain.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Some gray and white matter regions of the brain are sexually dimorphic. The best MRI technique for identifying subtle differences in white matter is diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). The purpose of this paper is to investigate whether white matter patterns in female to male (FtM?) transsexuals before commencing cross-sex hormone treatment are more similar to that of their biological sex or to that of their gender identity. METHOD: DTI was performed in 18 FtM? transsexuals and 24 male and 19 female heterosexual controls scanned with a 3 T Trio Tim Magneton. Fractional anisotropy (FA) was performed on white matter fibers of the whole brain, which was spatially analyzed using Tract-Based Spatial Statistics. RESULTS: In controls, males have significantly higher FA values than females in the medial and posterior parts of the right superior longitudinal fasciculus (SLF), the forceps minor, and the corticospinal tract. Compared to control females, FtM? showed higher FA values in posterior part of the right SLF, the forceps minor and corticospinal tract. Compared to control males, FtM? showed only lower FA values in the corticospinal tract. CONCLUSIONS: Our results show that the white matter microstructure pattern in untreated FtM? transsexuals is closer to the pattern of subjects who share their gender identity (males) than those who share their biological sex (females). Our results provide evidence for an inherent difference in the brain structure of FtM? transsexuals. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
PMID: 20562024 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Wiki Category: Uncategorized

Authors: Garcia-Falgueras A, Swaab DF.
Netherlands Institute for Neuroscience, an Institute of the Royal Netherlands Academy of Arts and Sciences, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
Abstract: The fetal brain develops during the intrauterine period in the male direction through a direct action of testosterone on the developing nerve cells, or in the female direction through the absence of this hormone surge. In this way, our gender identity (the conviction of belonging to the male or female gender) and sexual orientation are programmed or organized into our brain structures when we are still in the womb. However, since sexual differentiation of the genitals takes place in the first two months of pregnancy and sexual differentiation of the brain starts in the second half of pregnancy, these two processes can be influenced independently, which may result in extreme cases in trans-sexuality. This also means that in the event of ambiguous sex at birth, the degree of masculinization of the genitals may not reflect the degree of masculinization of the brain. There is no indication that social environment after birth has an effect on gender identity or sexual orientation. Copyright © 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.
PMID: 19955753 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Wiki Category: Hormones

Nature Genetics 38, 1304 - 1309 (2006)
Published online: 15 October 2006 | doi:10.1038/ng1907
Pietro Parma1,4, Orietta Radi1,4, Valerie Vidal2, Marie Christine Chaboissier2, Elena Dellambra3, Stella Valentini1, Liliana Guerra3, Andreas Schedl2 & Giovanna Camerino1
Abstract: R-spondins are a recently characterized small family of growth factors. Here we show that human R-spondin1 (RSPO1) is the gene disrupted in a recessive syndrome characterized by XX sex reversal, palmoplantar hyperkeratosis and predisposition to squamous cell carcinoma of the skin. Our data show, for the first time, that disruption of a single gene can lead to complete female-to-male sex reversal in the absence of the testis-determining gene, SRY.

by Uwe Wolfradt , Kerstin Neumann
Abstract: Whether postoperative male-to-female transsexuals differ in regard to measures of self- and body image from a nontranssexual control group was investigated. A group of 30 postoperative male-to-female transsexuals and control groups of 30 males and 30 females completed self-report measures (depersonalization, self-esteem, gender identity traits, body image). Results showed that transsexuals and males scored higher on self-esteem and dynamic body image than the females did. No differences between the groups were found in terms of depersonalization and satisfaction. Transsexuals and females described themselves as more feminine than males. Regarding sex-role orientation, more androgynous subjects were found among transsexuals than in the control groups. General satisfaction is associated with feminine and masculine traits in transsexuals. Results are discussed in context of the function of these personality features for the identity development of male-to-female transsexuals.
KEY WORDS: depersonalization; body image; self-esteem; male-to-female transsexuals; gender identity.
Wiki Category: Therapy

  • Tissue engineering a complete vaginal replacement from a small biopsy of autologous tissue.
    • Source: 2008 Jul 27;86(2):208-14.
    • Authors:
    • Affiliation:
      • Wake Forest Institute for Regenerative Medicine, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC 27157, USA.
    • Abstract
      In women, a healthy, patent vagina is important for the maintenance of a good quality of life. Apart from congenital abnormalities, such as cloacal exstrophy, intersex disorders, and an absence of the posterior two thirds of the organ, individuals may also suffer from cancer, trauma, infection, inflammation, or iatrogenic injuries leading to tissue damage and loss -- all of which require vaginal repair or replacement. Of necessity, reconstruction is often performed with nonvaginal tissue substitutes, such as segments of large intestine or skin, which are not anatomically or functionally ideal (Hendren and Atala, J Urol 1994; 152: 752; Hendren and Atala, J Pediatr Surg 1995; 30: 91). Whenever such tissue is used additional complications often ensue, such as strictures, infection, hair growth, graft shrinkage, diverticuli, and even malignancy (Filipas et al., BJU Int 2000; 85: 715; Lai and Chang, Changgeng Yi Xue Za Zhi 1999; 22: 253; Parsons et al., J Pediatr Surg 2002; 37: 629; Seccia et al., Ann Plast Surg 2002; 49: 379; Filipas, Curr Opin Urol 2001; 11: 267).
      • METHODS:
      Using a rabbit model, we report here the construction of a functional vagina using autologous cells expanded from a small vaginal biopsy. RESULTS.: Six months after total vaginal replacement, radiographic analysis of rabbits implanted with the neovagina demonstrated wide, patent vaginal calibers without strictures. Histologic analysis revealed well-organized epithelial and muscle cell layers. Physiologic studies showed normal-range responses to electrical stimulation or to an adrenergic agonist.
      These data indicate that a tissue engineering approach to clinical vaginal reconstruction in women is now a realistic possibility.
    • PMID::18645481 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
    • Full Text Sources
    • Other Literature Sources
    • Medical


Categories: Research

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